Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Hier alles over veganisme tijdens een zwangerschap of zaken rondom het ouderschap en kinderen.

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Amethystina
Berichten: 92
Lid geworden op: wo mei 13, 2009 13:33
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Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door Amethystina » ma sep 28, 2009 11:35

Hoi!
Ik ben sinds 4 weekjes zwanger van onze eerste spruit. Graag zou ik met andere mama's (in spe) ervaringen en tips uitwisselen, via pb of via het forum, vooral ook over gezondheid en wat wel en niet te eten.
Ik ben benieuwd! :D

lena
Berichten: 2153
Lid geworden op: za feb 11, 2006 1:16

Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door lena » ma sep 28, 2009 12:58

Gefeliciteerd! Heb je al wat boeken/websites en dergelijke gelezen over vegan zwanger zijn, of is het nog helemaal nieuw voor je?

Het allerbelangrijkst is dat je een B12 supplement slikt, zowel tijdens zwangerschap als borstvoeding. Het kan zijn dat je zelf geen B12 tekort hebt omdat je nog een voorraad hebt, maar je baby krijgt niets uit deze voorraad. Een B12 tekort bij baby's is heel gevaarlijk, kan zelfs dodelijk zijn.

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Liadan
Berichten: 378
Lid geworden op: ma jul 20, 2009 8:40
Leefwijze: veganist

Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door Liadan » ma sep 28, 2009 13:21

Gefeliciteerd met de zwangerschap! :D

Amethystina
Berichten: 92
Lid geworden op: wo mei 13, 2009 13:33
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Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door Amethystina » ma sep 28, 2009 13:52

Dank jullie wel :-D
Ik heb al van alles gelezen vóór m'n zwangerschap, maar dat is toch anders dan het in de praktijk te moeten doen en ervaren... Een aantal jaar geleden heb ik het boek 'Your vegetarian pregnancy' gelezen, maar het meeste ben ik weer vergeten dus ik ga het maar weer eens overnieuw lezen denk ik.. Wel een heel leuk boek trouwens, met ook steeds alternatieven voor als je geen zuivelproducten gebruikt. Zelf eet ik soms een eitje of wat kaas, maar geen helemaal melk of yoghurt (wel veel sojaproducten).
Ik ben ook begonnen met de vitamine B-complex van Solgar, ik heb al eens eerder een B12 tekort gehad, en hier zit ook direct de juiste hoeveelheid foliumzuur in, heel handig!

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Marla
Berichten: 3895
Lid geworden op: vr jan 10, 2003 11:07
Leefwijze: veganist

Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door Marla » ma sep 28, 2009 14:54

Solgar heeft ook een speciale multivitamine voor zwangere vrouwen, deze is ook geschikt voor veganisten, misschien is dat iets voor je?

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Wen
Berichten: 2202
Lid geworden op: ma jan 07, 2008 8:58

Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door Wen » ma sep 28, 2009 17:24

Ik zou er zo veel mogelijk over lezen, zodat je goed geinformeerd bent.
Misschien vind je 1 van deze boeken informatief:

Adams, J. Carol (2004). Help! My child stopped eating meat!...and milk!...and cheese!...and eggs! What's left to eat: an a-z guide to surviving a conflict in diets. Continuum. 176 p. ISBN 0-826-41583-0
Attwood, Charles R.; Spock, Benjamin (1996) Dr. Attwood's low-fat prescription for kids: a pediatrician's program of preventive nutrition. Penguin USA. 286 p. ISBN 0-140-23644-9
Denny, Roz (2000). Cooking for your vegetarian kids. London: Lorenz Books. 96 p. ISBN 1-85967-964-1
Elliot, Rose (1998). The vegetarian mother & baby book. House Value Random. (156 p.?) ISBN 0-517-28295-X
Gordon, Jay; Boyle, Antonia Barnes (1994). Good food today, great kids tomorrow: 50 things you can do for healthy, happy children. Michael Wiese Productions. ISBN 0-941-1817-5
Graimes, Nicola (2003). Great healthy food for vegetarian kids. London: Carroll & Brown. 128p. ISBN 1-90-325831-6
Green, Sammy (1994). New recipes for young vegetarians. Foulsham & Co Ltd. ISBN 0-57-201458-9
Haynes, Linda (1999). The vegetarian lunchbasket: over 225 easy, low-fat, nutritious, recipes for the quality-conscious family on the go. Novato: New World Library. 208 p. ISBN 1-57731-087-X
Jackson, Petra (2004). Vegetarian baby and child: nutritional guidance and recipes to help raise a healthy child. Todtri Productions Ltd. 144 p. ISBN 15-77-17271-X
Kleintjes, Stefan. Lekker en volwaardig eten voor kleintjes van o-4 jaar (1996). Rijswijk: Elmar, 229 p. ISBN 90-389-031-62
Lewis, Sara (2001). Veggie food for kids. London: Hamlyn. 144 p. ISBN 0-60-060211-7
McLean, Narelle (2000). Vegetarian meals for babies & young children. Simon & Schuster. 140 p. ISBN 0-731-80832-0
Messina, Virginia; Messina, Mark (1996). The vegetarian way: total health for you and your family. New York: Three Rivers. 400p. ISBN 0-51-788275-2
Moll, Lucy (1997). The vegetarian child: a complete guide for parents. New York: Perigee Books. 224 p. ISBN 03-99-52271-9
Pavlina, Erin (ed.) (1993). Vegan and vegetarian recipes, health, pregnancy and raising children at VegFamily Magazine. OF VegFamily Magazine: the magazine for vegan family living. http://www.vegfamily.com" target="_blank. Laatste raadpleging 23-12-2003.
Pavlina, Erin (2003). Raising vegan children in a non-vegan world: a complete guide for parents. VegFamily. 206 p. ISBN 0-972-51020-6
Scott, Laura (2002). Safeguarding children’s health defeating disease through vegetarian/vegan diets: a major new health and nutrition report for healthcare professionals and parents. Vegetarian and Vegan Foundation. Gepubliceerd op http://www.vegetarian.org.uk" target="_blank
Stepaniak, Joanne; Melina, Vesanto (2003). Raising vegetarian children: a guide to good health and family harmony. Chicago et al.: Contemporary Books. 381 p. ISBN 0-658-02155-9
Timperley, Carol (1997). Baby and child vegetarian recipes: over 150 healthy and delicious dishes for your young family. London: Vintage/Ebury (a division of Random House Group). 144p. ISBN 00-91-8530-1
Wilson, Melanie (ed.); Watkins, Lucy (site manager) (2003). Vegetarian baby and child online magazine. http://www.vegetarianbaby.com" target="_blank. Laatste raadpleging 23-12-2003.
Yntema, Sharon K. (1995). Vegetarian Children: A Supportive Guide for Parents. McBooks Press. 176 p. ISBN 0-935-52622-6
Yntema, Sharon K.; Beard, Christine H. (1999). New vegetarian baby: An Entirely New, Updated Edition of the Classic Guide to Raising Your Baby on the Healthiest Possible Diet (NY): McBooks Press. 288 p. ISBN 0-93-552663-3

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Wen
Berichten: 2202
Lid geworden op: ma jan 07, 2008 8:58

Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door Wen » ma sep 28, 2009 17:29

Feeding Vegan Kids
by Reed Mangels, Ph.D., R.D.
Many members of The Vegetarian Resource Group are glowing testimony to the fact that vegan children can be healthy, grow normally, be extremely active, and (we think) smarter than average. Of course it takes time and thought to feed vegan children. Shouldn't feeding of any child require time and thought? After all, the years from birth to adolescence are the years when eating habits are set, when growth rate is high, and to a large extent, when the size of stores of essential nutrients such as calcium and iron are determined.

The earliest food for a vegan baby is ideally breast milk. Many benefits to the infant are conveyed by breast feeding including some enhancement of the immune system, protection against infection, and reduced risk of allergies. In addition, breast milk was designed for baby humans and quite probably contains substances needed by growing infants which are not even known to be essential and are not included in infant formulas.

Many books on infant care have sections on techniques and timing of breast feeding, and we suggest that you refer to one of these for more information. Be forewarned that the books may discourage vegetarianism. They are wrong. With a little attention to detail, vegetarianism and breast feeding are a good combination. In fact, several reports show that milk of vegetarian women is lower in pesticides than the milk of women eating typical American diets (1,2).

If you choose to breast feed, be sure to see the preceding section on lactation to make sure that your milk is adequate for your child. Be especially careful that you are getting enough vitamin B-12. If your diet does not contain reliable sources of vitamin B-12, your breastfed infants should receive supplements of 0.4-0.5 micrograms of vitamin B-12 daily.

See that your infant receives at least 30 minutes of sunlight exposure per week if wearing only a diaper or 2 hours per week fully clothed without a hat to maintain normal vitamin D levels (3). Dark-skinned infants require greater sunshine exposure. If sunlight exposure is limited, due to factors like a cloudy climate, winter, or being dark-skinned, infants who are solely breastfed should receive vitamin D supplements of at least 5 micrograms (200 IU) per day (4). Vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets (soft, improperly mineralized bones). Human milk contains only very low levels of vitamin D.

The iron content of breast milk is generally low, no matter how good the mother's diet is. The iron which is in breast milk is readily absorbed by the infant, however. The iron in breast milk is adequate for the first 4 to 6 months or longer. Recommendations call for use of iron supplements (1 mg/kg/day) beginning at 4-6 months to insure adequate iron intake. Breast fed infants may require supplemental fluoride after 6 months if water intake is low and if supplements are prescribed by a dentist or pediatrician.

If for any reason you choose not to breast feed or if you are using formula to supplement breast feeding, there are several soy-based formulas available. These products support normal infant growth and development (5). Soy-based formulas are used by vegan families as the best option when breast feeding is not possible. At this time all soy formulas contain vitamin D derived from lanolin (sheep's wool). Some soy-based formulas (such as Parent's Choice ® and some store brands) may contain animal- derived fats so check the ingredient label. Soy formulas are used exclusively for the first six months. Iron supplements may be indicated at 4-6 months if the formula is not fortified with iron.

Soy milk, rice milk, and homemade formulas should not be used to replace breast milk or commercial infant formula during the first year. These foods do not contain the proper ratio of protein, fat, and carbohydrate, nor do they have enough of many vitamins and minerals to be used as a significant part of the diet in the first year.

Supplemental food (food besides breast milk and formula) can be started at different times in different children depending on the child's rate of growth and stage of development but are usually begun somewhere in the middle of the first year. Some signs of the time to start introducing solid foods are: the ability to sit unsupported, disappearance of the tongue extrusion reflex, increased interest in foods others are eating, and an ability to pick up food and put it in the mouth.

Introduce one new food at a time so that any source of allergies can be later identified. Many people use iron-fortified infant rice cereal as the first food. This is a good choice as it is a good source of iron and rice cereal is least likely to cause an allergic response. Cereal can be mixed with expressed breast milk or soy formula so the consistency is fairly thin. Formula or breast milk feedings should continue as usual. Start with one cereal feeding daily and work up to 2 meals daily or 1/3 to 1/2 cup. Oats, barley, corn, and other grains can be ground in a blender and then cooked until very soft and smooth. These cereals can be introduced one at a time. However, they do not contain much iron, so iron supplements should be continued.

When cereals are well accepted, fruit, fruit juice, and vegetables can be introduced. Fruits and vegetables should be well mashed or puréed. Mashed banana is one food that many infants especially enjoy. Other fruits include mashed avocado, applesauce, and puréed canned peaches or pears. Citrus fruits and juices are common allergens and should not be introduced until the first birthday. Mild vegetables such as potatoes, carrots, peas, sweet potatoes, and green beans should be cooked well and mashed. There is no need to add spices, sugar, or salt to cereals, fruits, and vegetables. Grain foods such as soft, cooked pasta or rice, soft breads, dry cereals, and crackers can be introduced as the baby becomes more adept at chewing. By age 7-8 months, good sources of protein can be introduced. These include well-mashed cooked dried beans, mashed tofu, and, soy yogurt. Children should progress from mashed or pureed foods to pieces of soft food. Smooth nut and seed butters spread on bread or crackers can be introduced after the first birthday.

Many parents choose to use commercially prepared baby foods. There are products available for vegan infants. Careful label reading is recommended. Since commercial products contain limited selections for the older vegan infant, many parents opt to prepare their own baby foods. Foods should be well washed, cooked thoroughly, and blended or mashed to appropriate consistency. Home-prepared foods can be kept in the refrigerator for up to 2 days or frozen in small quantities for later use.

By 10-12 months, most children will be eating at least the amounts of foods shown in Table 17.

Certainly it makes sense for vegans to continue breast feeding for a year or longer, if possible, because breast milk is a rich source of nutrients. Vegan infants should be weaned to a fortified soy milk containing calcium, vitamin B-12, and vitamin D. Low-fat or non-fat soy milks should not be used before age 2. Rice milks are not recommended as a primary beverage for infants and toddlers as they are quite low in protein and energy.

Several studies have been reported showing that the growth of vegan children is slower than that of non-vegans (see 6-8). Studies such as these are often cited as evidence that vegan diets are inherently unhealthy. However, when the studies are examined more closely, we find that they are often based on vegans who have very low calorie or very limited diets (only fruit and nuts for example). In addition, many vegan infants are breast fed. Compared to formula-fed infants, breast-fed infants generally gain weight at about the same rate for the first 2-3 months and then gain weight less rapidly from 3 to 12 months (11). This means by 12 months, breast fed infants will tend to be leaner than formula-fed infants. New growth charts are being developed which will be based on the growth of breast-fed infants.

An additional question that must be asked is, "What is a normal growth rate?" Growth rate is assessed by comparing changes in a child's height, weight, and head circumference to rates of growth that have been established by measuring large numbers of apparently healthy US children. There is no one ideal rate of growth. Instead, height, weight, and head circumference are reported in percentiles. If your child's height is at the 50th percentile, this means that 50% of children of that age are taller and 50% are shorter. Similarly, a weight at the 25th percentile means 25% of children weigh less and 75% weigh more.

Table 17: Feeding Schedule For Vegan Babies Ages 4-12 Months
4-7 mos* 6-8 mos 7-10 mos 10-12 mos
MILK Breast milk or soy formula. Breast milk or soy formula. Breast milk or soy formula. Breast milk or soy formula (24-32 ounces).
CEREAL & BREAD Begin iron-fortified baby cereal mixed with milk. Continue baby cereal. Begin other breads and cereals. Baby cereal. Other breads and cereals. Baby cereal until 18 mos. Total of 4 svgs (1 svg=1/4 slice bread or 2-4 TB cereal).
FRUITS & VEGETABLES None Begin juice from cup: 2-4 oz vit C source. Begin mashed vegetables & fruits. 4 oz juice. Pieces of soft/cooked fruits & vegetables. Table-food diet. Allow 4 svgs per day (1 svg=1-6 TB fruit & vegetable, 4 oz juice).
LEGUMES & NUT BUTTERS None None Gradually introduce tofu. Begin casseroles, pureed legumes, soy cheese, & soy yogurt. 2 svgs daily each about 1/2 oz. Nut butters should not be started before 1 year.
Adapted from (10).

*Overlap of ages occurs because of varying rate of development.
While some studies show that vegan children are at a lower percentile of weight and height than are other children of a similar age, a recent study shows that vegan children can have growth rates which do not differ from those of omnivorous children of the same age (9). At this time we cannot say that a child growing at the 25th percentile is any more or less healthy than a child growing at the 75th percentile. What seems to be more important is that the child stays at about the same percentile. For example, a child who is at the 50th percentile for height at age 2 and only at the 25th percentile at age 3 has had a faltering in growth rate. The cause of this faltering should be determined.

The best way to assure that your children achieve their ideal rate of growth is to make sure that they have adequate calories. Some vegan children have difficulty getting enough calories because of the sheer bulk of their diets. Children have small stomachs and can become full before they have eaten enough food to sustain growth. The judicious use of fats in forms like avocados, nuts, nut butters, seeds, and seed butters will provide a concentrated source of calories needed by many vegan children. Dried fruits are also a concentrated calorie source and are an attractive food for many children. Teeth should be brushed after eating dried fruits to prevent tooth decay.

Are very low fat diets appropriate for children? Some parents wish to reduce their children's risk of developing heart disease later in life and markedly restrict the fat in the children's diets (10 to 15 percent of calories from fat). In some cases, a very low fat diet can compromise a child's growth because the child is not getting enough calories. There is no evidence that a very low fat diet is any healthier for a vegan child than a diet which has somewhat more fat (20 to 30 percent of calories from fat). Before 2 years, children should generally not have any restriction of fat because of the rapid growth and high need for calories during this time (12). For children, age 2 and older, a diet which contains between 20 and 30 percent of calories from fat is recommended (12). If you are using a lower fat diet than this check that the child's growth is normal and that the child is eating enough food to meet nutrient needs.

Diets of young children should not be overly high in fiber since this may limit the amount of food they can eat. The fiber content of a vegan child's diet can be reduced by giving the child some refined grain products, fruit juices, and peeled vegetables.

Sources of protein for vegan children include legumes, grains, tofu, tempeh, soymilk, nuts, peanut butter, tahini, soy hot dogs, soy yogurt, and veggie burgers. Some of these foods should be used daily. Children should get enough calories so that protein can be used for growth in addition to meeting energy needs.

Table 18 shows one diet plan that has been used successfully by vegan children (adapted from 13,14).

Table 18: Diet Plans for Vegan Children

TODDLERS AND PRESCHOOLERS (AGE 1-4)

FOOD GROUP NUMBER OF SERVINGS
Grains 6 or more (a serving is 1/2 to 1 slice of bread or 1/4 to 1/2 cup cooked cereal or grain or pasta or 1/2 to 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal)
Legumes, Nuts, Seeds 2 or more (a serving is 1/4 to 1/2 cup cooked beans, tofu, tempeh or TVP; or 1-1/2 to 3 ounces of meat analogue; or 1 to 2 Tbsp. nuts, seeds, nut or seed butter
Fortified soymilk, etc 3 (a serving is 1 cup fortified soymilk, infant formula, or breast milk)
Vegetables 2 or more (a serving is 1/4 to 1/2 cup cooked or 1/2 to 1 cup raw vegetables)
Fruits 3 or more (a serving is 1/4 to 1/2 cup canned fruit or 1/2 cup juice, or 1 medium fruit)
Fats 3 (1 tsp. margarine or oil)


SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN

FOOD GROUP NUMBER OF SERVINGS
Grains 6 or more for 4 to 6 yr olds; 7 or more for 7 to 12 yr olds (a serving is 1 slice of bread or 1/2 cup cooked cereal or grain or pasta or 3/4 to 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal)
Legumes, Nuts, Seeds 1 to 1/2 to 3 for 4 to 6 yr olds; 3 or more for 7 to 12 yr olds (a serving is 1/2 cup cooked beans, tofu, tempeh or TVP; or 3 ounces of meat analogue; or 2 Tbsp nuts, seeds, nut or seed butter
Fortified Soymilk, etc. 3 (a serving is 1 cup fortified soymilk)
Vegetables 1-1/2 to 3 for 4 to 6 yr olds; 4 or more for 7 to 12 yr olds (a serving is 1/2 cup cooked or 1 cup raw vegetables)
Fruits 2 to 4 for 4 to 6 yr olds; 3 or more for 7 to 12 yr olds (a serving is 1/2 cup canned fruit or 3/4 cup juice, or 1 medium fruit)
Fats 4 for 4 to 6 yr olds; 5 for 7 to 12 yr olds (a serving is 1 tsp. margarine or oil)


Adapted from (13) and (14). See Notes that follow.

Notes: Serving sizes vary depending on the child's age.
The calorie content of the diet can be increased by greater amounts of nut butters, dried fruits, soy products, and other high calorie foods.

A regular source of vitamin B-12 like Vegetarian Support Formula nutritional yeast, vitamin B-12-fortified soymilk, vitamin B-12-fortified breakfast cereal, vitamin B-12-fortifed meat analogue, or vitamin B-12 supplements should be used.

Adequate exposure to sunlight, 20 to 30 minutes of summer sun on hands and face two to three times a week, is recommended to promote vitamin D synthesis (2, 4). If sunlight exposure is limited, dietary or supplemental vitamin D should be used.

Although today more and more children are vegan from birth, many older children also become vegan. There are many ways to make a transition from a non-vegan to a vegan diet. Some families gradually eliminate dairy products and eggs, while others make a more abrupt transition. Regardless of which approach you choose, be sure to explain to your child what is going on and why, at your child's level. Offer foods that look familiar, at first. Peanut butter sandwiches seem to be universally popular (beware: some kids are allergic to peanut butter) and many children like pasta or tacos. Gradually introduce new foods. Watch your child's weight closely. If weight loss occurs or the child doesn't seem to be growing as rapidly, add more concentrated calories and reduce the fiber in your child's diet.

Teenage Vegans

Teenage vegans have nutritional needs that are the same as any other teenager. The years between 13 and 19 are times of especially rapid growth and change. Nutritional needs are high during these years. The teenage vegan should follow the same recommendations that are made for all vegans, namely to eat a wide variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, plenty of leafy greens, whole grain products, nuts, seeds, and legumes. Protein, calcium, iron, and vitamin B12 are nutrients teenage vegans should be aware of.

The recommendation for protein is 0.5 grams per pound for 11-14 year olds and 0.4 grams per pound for 15-18 year olds (15). Those exercising strenuously (marathon runners, for example) may need slightly more protein. A 16 year old who weighs 120 pounds, needs about 44 grams of protein daily. In terms of food, 1 cup of cooked dried beans has 14 grams of protein, a cup of soy milk or soy yogurt has 8-10 grams, 4 ounces of tofu has 9 grams, a tablespoon of peanut butter or peanuts has 4 grams, and 1 slice of bread or 1 cup of grain has about 3 grams.

Fruits, fats, and alcohol do not provide much protein, and so a diet based only on these foods would have a good chance of being too low in protein. Vegans eating varied diets containing vegetables, beans, grains, nuts, and seeds rarely have any difficulty getting enough protein as long as their diet contains enough energy (calories) to support growth. There is no need to take protein supplements. There is no health benefit to eating a very high protein diet and it will not help in muscle building.

During adolescence, calcium is used to build bones. The density of bones is determined in adolescence and young adulthood, and so it is important to include three or more good sources of calcium in a teenager's diet every day.

Cow's milk and dairy products do contain calcium. However, there are other good sources of calcium such as tofu processed with calcium sulfate, green leafy vegetables including collard greens, mustard greens, and kale, as well as tahini (sesame butter), fortified soymilk, and fortified orange juice.

By eating a varied diet, a vegan can meet his or her iron needs, while avoiding the excess fat and cholesterol found in red meats such as beef or pork. To increase the amount of iron absorbed from a meal, eat a food containing vitamin C as part of the meal. Citrus fruits and juices, tomatoes, and broccoli are all good sources of vitamin C. Foods that are high in iron include broccoli, raisins, watermelon, spinach, black-eyed peas, blackstrap molasses, chickpeas, and pinto beans.

It is important to consume adequate vitamin B12 during adolescence. Vitamin B12 is not found in plants. Some cereals have vitamin B12 (check the label). Red Star Vegetarian Support Formula nutritional yeast supplies B12.

Many teenagers are concerned with losing or gaining weight. To lose weight, look at the diet. If it has lots of sweet or fatty foods, replace them with fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes. If a diet already seems healthy, increased exercise -- walking, running or swimming daily -- can help control weight. To gain weight, more calories are needed. Perhaps eating more often or eating foods somewhat higher in fat and lower in bulk will help. Try to eat three or more times a day whether you are trying to gain weight or lose weight. It is hard to get all of the nutritious foods you need if you only eat one meal a day. If you feel that you cannot control your eating behavior or if you are losing a great deal of weight, you should discuss this with your health care provider.

Often there is just not enough time to eat. Below are some foods that kids can eat on the run. Some of these foods can be found in fast-food restaurants -- check the menu. Ideas for snacks that you can carry from home include:

Apples, oranges, bananas, grapes, peaches, plums, dried fruits, bagels and peanut butter, carrot or celery sticks, popcorn, pretzels, soy cheese pizza, bean tacos or burritos, salad, soy yogurt, soymilk, rice cakes, sandwiches, frozen juice bars.

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Wen
Berichten: 2202
Lid geworden op: ma jan 07, 2008 8:58

Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door Wen » ma sep 28, 2009 17:32


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Wen
Berichten: 2202
Lid geworden op: ma jan 07, 2008 8:58

Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door Wen » ma sep 28, 2009 17:36

Folder voor zwangere vrouwen en vrouwen met kleine kinderen:

A Practical Guide to Veganism during Pregnancy & throughout Childhood
About This Guide

Whilst friends, family and health care professionals may periodically challenge the nutritional adequacy of a vegan diet, when it comes to feeding this diet to a mother-to-be or a child, those challenges can often turn into vociferous opposition quite unlike anything that has ever been experienced before! The important thing to remember is that a varied wholefood vegan diet will provide all the nutrients required for a healthy body during pregnancy, breast feeding, infancy and childhood, through the teenage years to adulthood. In fact, there is no known nutrient the vegan diet cannot provide. Several studies have shown that vegan women typically have healthy pregnancies and that their children thrive. Thousands of healthy children have now been reared on vegan diets and can expect to look forward to a healthier-than-average adulthood.

The following is a general introduction to pregnancy, children and the vegan diet. More detailed information should be sought from publications available for sale through the Vegan Society or organisations listed under Further Details.

One really comprehensive book devoted to this subject is Pregnancy, Children & the Vegan Diet by Dr Michael Klaper. This book provides information on meal plans for children and pregnant women - as well as recipes. The book is American so some parts will not be relevant to those living outside the country e.g. recommended infant milks will not be available. Testimonies from vegan families in Dr Klaper's book provide prospective vegans and even 'old hands' with the confidence and encouragement to raise their children on a compassionate and healthy diet.

Note: current advice suggests that peanuts should be avoided during pregnancy and when breast feeding in order to reduce the incidence of allergies in children.
Section One - Pregnancy
The Importance of Good Nutrition

Research during the 1990s has revealed that a pregnant woman's diet, and that of her infant during the first year of life can affect the child's health 40, 50 or even 60 years later. This research establishes the importance of good nutrition during pregnancy and infancy. A pregnant woman requires extra nutrition to support the growing foetus and to allow for changes in her body. A series of studies at the Farm, a vegan community in the USA, show that vegans can have healthy pregnancies and that infants and children can safely follow a vegan diet.
The First Few Months

Recommendations for many vitamins and minerals are higher in pregnancy but the increase in energy (calorie) requirements is relatively small. The pattern of weight gain is different for every woman. General guidelines include a little weight gain in the first trimester (first 3 months). In the second and third trimesters a weight gain of a pound a week is common. If weight gain is slow or nonexistent then more food needs to be consumed. For example, eat more often or foods higher in fat and lower in bulk. If weight gain is high, then take a look at the types of foods eaten. Try to ensure that any sweet or fatty foods are replaced with fresh fruit, vegetables, pulses and grains (e.g. wholemeal bread, rice, etc). If the diet is already fairly healthy, then try to ensure more exercise is taken e.g. walking, swimming, etc. on a daily basis.

There is little, if any, increase in calorific needs during the first trimester. However, in order to support the recommended weight gain during the second and third trimesters, an extra 300 calories will be required. 300 calories is a fairly small increase compared to the increases required for other nutrients so it is important to use those calories in a wise manner. For example, instead of drinking 2 cans of cola, 300 calories worth of fruit and vegetables should be consumed which will also provide vitamin and mineral needs.

Several small meals should be eaten during the day. Don't miss breakfast and eat a huge lunch. It is important to provide a regular supply of nutrients to the growing foetus. Babies do not do well fasting for hours on end.

The following chart gives examples of nutrients required for a healthy body and foods that provide these nutrients:

aim to eat a varied wholefood diet and choose foods from the following food groups on a daily basis

1 Cereals e.g. barley, rice, wheat (bread, pasta, shredded wheat), oats, millet, corn, bulgur, cous cous, etc

2 Pulses e.g. beans, peas, lentils (cooked or sprouted)

3 Nuts & Seeds e.g. all types of nuts, nut butters (peanut butter, cashew nut butter etc), pumpkin, sunflower and sesame seeds and tahini (sesame seed spread)

4 Vegetables (cooked and/or raw) Deep yellow & dark green leafy vegetables include carrots, green peppers, broccoli, spinach, endive and kale. Other vegetables include bean sprouts, potatoes, tomatoes, lettuce, cabbage, sweet corn, celery, onions, cucumbers, beetroot, marrows, courgettes and cauliflower.

5 Fruits (fresh, dried and tinned) e.g. bananas, oranges, tangerines, grapefruit, apples, mangoes, cherries, grapes, apricots, pear, paw paws, kiwis, berries, currants, lemons and plums.
Vegan sources of key nutrients
Protein

Whole grains (e.g. whole-wheat flour and bread, brown rice), nuts (e.g. hazels, cashews, brazils, almonds), sunflower and other seeds, pulses (e.g. peas, lentils, beans), soya flour, soya milk, tofu .
Carbohydrates

Whole grains (e.g. wheat, oats, barley, rice), whole-wheat bread, pasta and other flour products, lentils, beans, potatoes, dried and fresh fruit.
Fats

Nuts and seeds, nut and seed oils, vegan margarine, avocados.
Essential Fatty Acids

Two polyunsaturated fatty acids not made by the body are linoleic acid (omega 6 group) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega 3 group).

Linoleic acid - safflower, sunflower, corn, evening primrose & soya oils.

Alpha-linolenic acid - linseed, pumpkin seed, walnut, soya & rapeseed (canola) oils.
Vitamins

A - Carrots, spinach, pumpkins, tomatoes, dark greens, vegan margarines.

B - Nuts, whole-grains, oats, muesli, pulses, yeast extract (e.g. Marmite), leafy green vegetables, potatoes, mushrooms and dried fruit.

B12 - Fortified yeast extracts and soya milks, vegan margarines, packeted 'veggie-burger' mixes. Possibly: Fermented foods (eg. tamari, miso and tempeh), sea vegetables (e.g. hijiki, wakame and spirulina).

C - Citrus fruits (e.g. oranges, lemons, grapefruit), red and blackcurrants, berries, green vegetables and potatoes.

D - Sunlight, some soya milks and vegan margarines.

E - Nuts, seeds, whole grains and flours, vegetable oils.

Folate - Wheatgerm, raw or lightly-cooked green leafy vegetables (e.g. watercress, broccoli, spinach), yeast, yeast extracts, nuts, peas, runner beans, oranges, dates, avocados, whole grains.
Minerals

Calcium - Molasses, seeds, nuts, carob, pulses (e.g. soya beans, tofu, haricot beans, miso-fermented soya bean curd), parsley, figs (dried), sea vegetables, grains (e.g. oatmeal), fortified soya milk.

Iron - Seeds, nuts, pulses, miso, grains, dried fruit, molasses, sea vegetables, parsley, green leafy vegetables, using cast-iron cookware.

zinc - Wheatgerm, wholegrains (wholemeal bread, rice, oats), nuts, pulses, tofu, soya protein, miso, peas, parsley, bean sprouts.
Water

The state of pregnancy is a "watery" one, and the pregnant woman requires extra water for making additional blood for herself, the baby, and the three to six quarts of amniotic fluid in her uterus. She should try to drink at least four to six eight-ounce glasses per day in the form of pure water, fruit juices or vegetable juices. The balance of water needed (total 2-3 quarts daily) can be obtained from the watery fruits, vegetables, soups and salads, which are abundant in the vegan diet.
Further Information on Some Key Nutrients for Pregnant Women
Folate

Pregnant women must ensure adequate folate (folacin) consumption to protect their unborn children from neural tube defects such as spina bifida. Studies suggest this is plentiful in the diets of vegan adults. The Department of Health advises women considering having a baby and those who are pregnant to take a folate supplement as well as consuming foods rich in the vitamin. In the UK, 1991 recommendations for pregnant women were 300ug per day and for nursing mothers 260ug per day. All women wishing to conceive should take 400ug per day and continue this during the first 12 weeks.
Vitamin B12

Pregnant women do not require more than the average 1.5ug per day. Breast feeding women require 2ug per day. During pregnancy a woman's own laid-down body stores of B12 are not readily available to the foetus which builds up its own supply from the mother's current dietary intake of the vitamin. If B12 intake is low during pregnancy, the foetus will not have adequate stores of the vitamin and this may lead to a deficiency sometime after birth - even though the mother herself may have no clinical symptoms.
Calcium

Studies have shown that vegans' intake of calcium is adequate; there have been no reports of calcium deficiency. The high boron (rich in fruit and vegetables) content of the vegan diet and the exclusion of meat helps the body conserve calcium. Studies of the bones of vegans and vegetarians show that the likelihood of osteoporosis is no greater, and may be less, than for omnivores. In the UK, current recommendations for calcium consumption are 1250mg per day for breastfeeding women. Additional calcium during pregnancy is not thought necessary.
Iron

No extra iron is indicated in the UK for pregnant or breastfeeding women as it is assumed that increased requirements can be offset against the cessation of menstrual iron loss. However, the US recommended daily amount for pregnant women is 30mg which is double that of non-pregnant women.
Zinc

There is evidence from the general population that malformations occurring in some infants may be linked to zinc insufficiency in their mothers. Human milk is not a rich source of this mineral and during breastfeeding infants draw on their body reserves laid down during the last 3 months of pregnancy. Thus premature babies may be at risk of zinc deficiency. Intakes of zinc by adult vegans are similar to those of omnivores. Women aged 19-50 years should take 7mg per day. There is no recommended increase during pregnancy.
Suggested Meals During Pregnancy
Breakfast
# Wholemeal toast spread with vegan margarine and Marmite (or other yeast extract) or peanut butter - or both!
# Porridge and dried fruit with nut topping
# Muesli and fresh fruit with fortified soya milk
# Scrambled tofu with chopped onion and peppers on toast
# Ryvita crispbreads spread with margarine and nut butter
# Baked beans & lightly fried mushrooms on wholemeal toast
# Snacks
# Fresh and dried fruit
# Nuts
# Fruit smoothies (liquidised soft fruit & fortified soya milk)
# Wholemeal crackers and vegetable pâté
# Yoghurt (vegan version available from health/wholefood shops)
Lunch
# Scheese or Tofucheese (both available from health/wholefood shops) and salad sandwich
# Veggie Burger, wholemeal bun, lettuce, tomatoes, beansprouts. Fresh green salad with French dressing.
# Vegetable bean soup and baked potato
# Humous, salad and pitta bread
# Samosas or onion bhajis with salad
# Fruit cake
Dinner
# Vegetable soup and/or green salad as a starter
# Main courses: vegan versions of lasagne, spaghetti bolognese, shepherd's pie, stew, curry, vegetable biriani, quiche, etc.
Dessert
# Fresh fruit salad and ice 'cream'
# Fruit crumble and custard made with fortified soya milk
# Apple pie and soya creme
# Cake (fruit, vanilla sponge, chocolate, fudge, carob)
# Tofu cheesecake
Beverages

Pure water, fruit juices, soya milk shakes, coffee/tea type beverages, herbal teas n.b. Large amounts of caffeine have, in some cases, been associated with various problems in pregnancy. Caffeine does appear in the foetus' blood in the same concentration as in the mother's blood. It is probably, therefore, wise to limit or avoid caffeine-containing drinks such as coffee, tea and cola.
Morning Sickness

Tips on relieving morning sickness

Eat 5 or 6 small meals per day and try to eat something every few hours because you may feel sick when you are really hungry.

Avoid greasy or fried foods, as these take longer to digest.

If the smell of cooking makes you queasy, ask someone else to cook while you are out of the house or try eating cold foods like sandwiches, cereal, soya yogurt, nut/seed butters and crackers, or fruit.

Don't lie down directly after eating.

Keep a snack like crackers or dry cereal by your bed and eat a little on waking up in the night or before getting up in the morning.

Try making mixtures like mashed potatoes and chopped vegetables or vegetables and rice, because starchy foods are often more appealing than vegetables.
Section Two - Breastfeeding & Formula Milks
Breast is Best

The earliest food for a vegan baby should ideally be breast milk. For support and information on breast feeding please contact the La Leche League or The National Childbirth Trust (see Further Details for addresses). Many benefits are conveyed to the baby by breast feeding including some enhancement of the immune system, protection against infection, and reduced risk of allergies. In addition, breast milk is designed specifically for babies and quite probably contains substances needed by growing infants which are not even known to be essential and are not included in infant formulae.
Formula Milk & Soya Milk

If for any reason the baby is not being breast-fed or infant formula is used to supplement breast feeding, there is only one soya infant formula on the UK market suitable for vegans to use - Farley's Soya Formula made by Heinz. It is suitable to use from birth until adulthood! Available from chemists.

It is important that soya milk should not substituted for soya infant formula as it does not contain the proper ratio of protein, fat, carbohydrate, nor the vitamins and minerals required to be used as a sole food. Soya milk should not be fed to babies under 6 months of age because it has levels of protein which are too high and excessive protein intake is thought to be medically undesirable at this stage.

Plamil soya milk is fortified with calcium (to approximately the level of human milk) combined with the necessary vitamin D2 to enable the calcium to be absorbed, plus the essential vitamins B2 and B12. The sweetened version is suitable for infants during and beyond the weaning stage. Also, where a supplementary feed is required it may be diluted to bring it closer to human milk. Plamil Foods Ltd recommends that no such supplementary feeding takes place without (a) the parent or authorised representative notifying Plamil Foods Ltd in writing at the outset of the name and address of the doctor/medical advisor so the company may provide them with information relating to the product and (b) the parent undertakes to arrange regular medical supervision.
The Best Diet for Breastfeeding

The best diet for breast feeding is similar to that recommended for pregnancy. (See 'Pregnancy'). Calories, protein and vitamin B12 are higher while recommendations for iron are lower than during pregnancy.

The recommended calorie intake is 500 calories above the usual intake.

Breastfeeding women should ensure 2.0mg per day of B12.

Protein requirements rise to 56g+ of protein per day for breastfeeding mothers from the birth of the baby until 6 months of age. From the age of 6 months it can be reduced to 53g+ of protein per day. A guide to the amount of food that should be eaten on a daily basis, are as follows:

Portions of some vegan foods providing 10g of protein

Type of food Weight of food providing 10g protein
# Peanuts - 39g
# Almonds - 47g
# Chickpeas, dried & boiled - 119g
# Tofu, steamed - 124g
# Peas, boiled - 159g
# Wholemeal bread - 109g
# Brown rice, boiled - 109g
# Spinach, boiled - 454g
Weight Loss & Milk Loss

If too little food is eaten while breastfeeding then quantities of milk produced are liable to be lower. However, a loss of weight may be experienced because of a loss of calories in breast milk. It is safe to lose 1/2-1 lb a week while breastfeeding but more rigorous dieting is not recommended. As with pregnancy, small frequent meals are best. Since extra fluid is required at this time, use nutritious drinks like fruit and vegetable juices, soya milk (flavoured or unflavoured), soups and smoothies to provide calories as well.
Section Three - Vegan Infant Feeding
Vegan Infant Feeding - A Sensitive Issue!

Unless you are living in a supportive vegan environment, doubts about feeding children a vegan diet may creep in. Food is a sensitive issue at this time because people want the best for their children, giving the best foods possible. It is not uncommon for adults, who know the vegan diet is healthy for themselves, to re-evaluate whether it is such a good idea for their children. GPs, pediatricians and nutritionists still raise doubts about the adequacy of the diet and in some cases strongly advise against it. Please don't be deterred. Providing you follow a few simple guidelines you will be giving your child a perfectly healthy diet. The way forward will be smoother if family, friends and healthcare professionals see that you have a sound knowledge of nutrition and your child is thriving.
Support From a Vegan Doctor

One of the many advocates of a vegan diet for children is Dr Michael Klaper. Dr Klaper, an honors graduate of the University of Illinois in Chicago, has postgraduate training in medicine, surgery, anesthesiology and obstetrics. His clinical experience includes eight years of conventional general practice, and three years as physician in an isolated hospital in the mountains of northern California. He has seen thousands of patients in his general medical office. After prescribing a vegan diet to his patients he began to see beneficial changes in their health. Dr Klaper criticizes dairy products for their role in causing health problems - from runny noses to inflammed joints. Klaper's recommendations that children should never consume dairy products raises a few eyebrows from his medical colleagues. He has written two informative books Vegan Nutrition: Pure & Simple and Pregnancy, Children & the Vegan Diet (both available from the Vegan Society - see Further Details). Extracts taken from Pregnancy, Children & the Vegan Diet follows:
From Birth to 18 months

It makes sense for vegans to continue breastfeeding for a year, if possible, because breast milk is such a rich source of nutrients. However, many infants are not that interested in breastfeeding after 10-12 months and will begin drinking from a cup. Here is a chronological look at how to meet your baby's nutritional needs with a vegan diet.
Birth to 6 Months

From birth to 6 months, all of the baby's nutritional needs can be met through breast milk. Never let your baby nurse from the breast or bottle while lying flat on his or her back. Such a position permits the nasal cavity and middle ear canals to fill with milk, possibly leading to ear infections and allergies.
6 to 8 Months

At 6 months, solid foods can be introduced, but do not hurry the weaning process if the baby is content with breast milk alone. Pay attention to your baby's signals; you can tell your baby is ready for solid foods if he or she cries after breastfeedings or chews on the nipple. Even then, continue breastfeeding for as long as is comfortable for you and your baby. (Some babies are ready for solids shortly before six months. If such is the case with your baby, by all means start solids.)

The best time to introduce solid foods to your baby is just after nursings, when the baby is not ravenously hungry. Be patient and go slowly. The classic "first food" is mashed banana, though other good bets are apple sauce and peaches which are cooked and mashed. Start with a small amount of mashed banana as you hold the baby in your lap, tilting him/her back slightly as you touch the spoon to him/her lips and drop the food into his/her mouth. Show him/her by your smile that this is something they will like. If the baby isn't interested the first few times you try to introduce solids, just forget the whole project for another week. When the baby is ready, don't try to fill him/her up with the solids; these first attempts are merely an introduction. The baby will let you know when she has had enough by turning away her head, clamping her mouth shut or spitting the food out. Take his/her word for it.

Later, at about 7 months, your baby should be ready for well-cooked, wholegrain cereals that are mushy in consistency. Avoid commercial baby cereals, which are more expensive and do not have equal nutritional value as homemade. If your family has a history of wheat, soy or corn allergies, start with rice or oat cereals. A small amount of mashed banana or breast milk can be added to the cooked cereal for easy introduction.

When introducing solids to your baby, offer one type of food only and then observe how well it is tolerated. If two or more foods are introduced at the same time, and the baby has diarrhoea, colic or other digestive problems, you will not know which food was the culprit. Give the baby's digestive system a few days (up to a week) to get used to each new food before introducing additional ones.

Avoid all baby foods that contain sugar or artificial sweeteners. Sugar contains no vitamins, minerals or protein and can lead to obesity, both now and later in your child's life. Sweetened foods also confuse and seduce the appetite because they tend to satisfy hunger and displace healthful foods.
8 to 10 Months

At 8 to 10 months, you can introduce potatoes. Bake them whole to preserve vitamins, and mash with a small amount of water or breast milk. Or try mashing them with cooked beetroot to make them pink, much to the delight of babies this age.

After potatoes are well accepted (at nine to eleven months), your baby will be ready for fresh fruits, such as pears, peaches, plums and melons. Peeled apple may be given if scraped with a spoon or grated. To prevent allergies, do not give citrus fruits to babies until one year of age, and never offer sticky fruits like dates, figs and raisins until they can chew small pieces well and can floss their teeth afterward (with a little help from a grownup)
10 to 12 months

At 10 to 12 months, begin to introduce more cooked vegetables, either finely grated or blended. Try sweet potatoes (if you haven't already), winter squash and carrots; then experiment with other cooked vegetables. Do not give chunks or sticks of vegetables to children under 3 because of danger of choking. After the child's tolerance to various foods is established, you can offer blended salads. Merely blend avocado, tofu, apple sauce, cooked greens, and some nut butter (and a dropperful of iron-enriched vitamins, if 'vitamin insurance' is desired); then spoon-feed.

During this time period, you may also introduce well-cooked whole grains, like strained rice, barley oatmeal. Or try a high-protein cereal, with soya beans and wheat germ.
12 to 14 Months

At age 12 to 14 months, you can add legumes (peas and beans) to your baby's menu, but be sure all beans are cooked until quite soft and the skins (especially soya) are removed. A thin split-pea soup is a good introduction to legume protein. Check the baby's stool to see whether the beans are being digested well. If the stool smells sour, if the baby's bottom becomes reddened or irritated, or if parts of beans are seen, wait a while before trying legumes again. Some children do not tolerate whole legumes until age two or three, but that is okay. other soy products (such as soya milk and tofu) and grains will meet your child's nutritional needs. Hummus, made with chickpeas and tahini (sesame seed butter), is a tasty protein and calcium-rich food that can be used to augment an infant's nutrient intake. Another winner is avocado, rich in riboflavin, essential fatty acids, potassium and copper. Small pieces of ripe avocado can be eaten as finger food, or blended with water or fruit juice.

You can now give breads to your baby. Start with toast; it's easier for the baby to chew. And don't forget how much children, even young ones, love noodles. Pastas, enriched with artichoke and other vegetable flours and served with gravies and sauces, provide energy and protein.

Also try to get your child to appreciate raw vegetables, like carrots and cucumbers, at this age. Grating them finely or putting a dab or peanut butter, tahini or almond butter on these vegetables will often entice a child. Plain tofu and rice cakes are other healthful snacks.
14 to 18 Months

By age 14 to 18 months, your child should be eating the same foods you eat (after putting the foods through a baby food grinder, if necessary) and, because of your insistence on raising him or her on a vegan diet, will be off to great start, health-wise. Throughout these early months of your child's life you may have to endure criticisms from others that you're being "reckless" or "experimental". But be assured: A vegan diet is a good start for the health of a child.
Section 4 - Children
Research Gives Veganism the Thumbs Up!

Studies carried out on life long vegan children in 1981 and 1992 showed that although generally lighter in weight than their omnivore peers, vegan children are within the normal ranges for height and weight. Infants and children raised on a varied vegan diet obtain adequate protein and energy, are healthy and grow normally. Reports in the medical press of vegan infants suffering protein and energy deficiencies are extremely rare. In some instances infants were weaned onto poorly planned fruitarian or macrobiotic regimes rather than vegan diets. In other cases parents had not adopted veganism but instead had eliminated foods from their infants' diets on a piecemeal basis and without seeking proper advice.
Some Key Points for Feeding Vegan Children

Infants need plenty of energy. Home-prepared cereals should be made as a thick porridge, not as a thin gruel. Adding a little vegetable oil to the cooked grains, increases their calorie content, and improves palatability by making them less glutinous as they cool.

Use more soya bean oil or rapeseed (canola) oil, and less sunflower, safflower or corn oils. The former may encourage the production of fatty acids which are important for the development of the brain and vision.

Don't let infants fill up with liquids before eating their meals.

Spread breads with margarine fortified with D2 and B12 or with seed or nut butters to increase energy density.

Low salt yeast extract is a good source of vitamins and minerals.

Well cooked and mashed pulses provide energy and protein.

Use black molasses to boost iron and calcium intakes.

Tofu prepared with calcium salt (usually calcium sulphate) contains more calcium than cow's milk. It is also rich in protein.

Make sure children have access to sunshine regularly and give vitamin D2 supplements in winter.

Use soya milk which is fortified with calcium, vitamin D2 and vitamin B12.
Information on Some Key Nutrients for Children
Protein

What children primarily require is sufficient food energy i.e. calories rather than protein per se. With adequate calories an individual will be in positive nitrogen balance and will thrive on a diet in which protein is available from a mix of plant-based foods.
Vitamin B12

After birth, if a woman's breast milk contains too little B12, deficiency can then occur in her infant - not in the first few weeks of life but after a few months when his or her own stores have run down. B12 problems in breastfeeding infants of vegan mothers remain very rare. Requirements include 0.3ug per day for infants aged 0-6 months and 0.4ug for infants aged 6-12 months. Children from 1-10 years of age should consume 0.5ug increasing to 1ug per day. B12 deficiency in infancy and childhood is rare. However, because deficiency can have severe effects, and because natural plant sources of the vitamin are in doubt it is prudent for vegan families to use and give their children fortified foods or supplements.
Vitamin D

Except in northern latitudes, most people obtain vitamin D from exposure to sunshine, rather than food. Consequently the UK hasa set Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI) only for people most at risk from deficiency - that is infants from 8.5ug dropping to 7ug per day. Formula feeds contain sufficient vitamin D for infants but breast milk may not supply adequate amounts after 4-6 months of age especially in northern countries in the winter. Even in the general population, some autumn-born babies who are solely breast fed throughout winter may develop a deficiency, because the vitamin D content of their mother's breast milk is low. Nutritional rickets is more likely to occur under these conditions in dark-skinned people, especially if traditional clothing limits exposure to sunshine. Brief daily exposure of the skin to daylight in spring, summer and autumn, although not at the hottest times of the day, nor necessarily in direct sunshine, will ensure adequate vitamin D. Alternatively vitamin D fortified foods or supplements are an option for solely breast-fed infants and at weaning.
Calcium

Calcium deficiency has not been reported in vegan children. Given the importance of calcium intake during youth on the future risk of osteoporosis, vegan parents like any others should ensure calcium-rich foods in the diet. The RNIs are: 350-550mg per day for infants and children to the age of 10 years, 800mg per day for teenage girls, 1000mg per day for teenage boys.
Iron

Infants can absorb up to 50% of the iron in human breast milk but it is calculated that only 10% of the iron in formula milks is absorbed. A 1981 survey of British vegan children aged 1-4.6 years found an average iron intake of 10mg per day, mainly from wheat and pulses, which considerably exceeds the British RNI of 6.1-6.9mg per day. A follow up study at the ages of 5.8-12.8 years confirmed that all the children were still consuming the RNI for iron. The 1991 UK RNI is: 0-3 months - 1.7mg per day; 4-6 months - 4.3mg per day; 7-12 months - 7.8mg per day; children up to 10 years - 6.1-8.7mg per day (depending on age); and teenagers from 11.3-14.8mg per day.
Zinc

There is evidence from the general population that malformations occurring in some infants may be linked to zinc insufficiency in their mothers. Human milk is not a rich source of this mineral and during breastfeeding infants draw on their body reserves laid down during the last 3 months of pregnancy. Thus premature babies may be at risk of zinc deficiency. UK recommendations are 0-6 months - 4mg/day; 7 months-3 years - 5mg/day; 4-6 years - 6mg/day; 7-10 years - 7 mg/day.
Suggested Meal Plan for the Vegan Child

The following meal plan is taken from Pregnancy, Children & the Vegan Diet by Dr Michael Klaper. We hope it will be useful in providing an idea of amounts of foods that should be given to the growing child.
Daily Servings Per Age Group

Type of Food Approximate Serving 6 mths-1 yr 1-4 yrs 4-6 yrs
# BREAD 1 slice 1 3 4
# CEREALS (enriched) 1-5 tbs 1/2 finely ground 1 2
# FATS 1 tsp 0 3 4
# FRUITS
# citrus 2-4 oz 0 2 juiced/chopped 2
# other* 2-6 tbs 2-6 tbs 2 chopped 3
# PROTEINø 1-6 tbs 2 cooked/sieved 3 chopped 3
# VEGETABLES 2-3 oz
# green leafy/deep
# yellow 1/4 cooked/pureed 1/2 chopped 1
# other§ 1/2 cooked/pureed 1 chopped 1
# Fortified 200ml 3 3 3
# Soya Milk
# e.g. Farleys Soya Formula
# MISC
# molasses 1 tbs 0 1 1
# wheatgerm 1 tbs 0 optional optional

* Other fruits include avocado, apple, peach, banana, pear, berries, apricots and grapes.

ø Protein foods include nuts, nut butters, peanut butter, pulses, seeds, seed butters and tofu.Nut milks may be made for older children but should not replace soya milk. Nuts and seeds should be ground for the toddler.

§ Other vegetables include bean sprouts, potatoes, tomatoes, lettuce, cabbage, celery, onions, cucumbers, beetroot and cauliflower.
Section 5 - Mixing With Non-Vegan Children
Having Friends 'Round

When dealing with your child's non-vegan friends, it is worth making a note of the types of foods they will be likely to expect at parties, afternoon tea, etc. These foods are likely to be slightly different from those that would be served to fellow vegans who are into the no-sugar wholefood type diet. Children are notoriously undiplomatic in expressing their disapproval of food and it can be very upsetting for vegan children to have 'their' food curtly rejected - especially at a birthday party or similar special gathering of friends.

If children are expecting a more conventional approach to meals, try to go along with this expectation. In this way the likelihood is they will think the vegan diet is not so strange after all and be more willing to try more of the same in the future. For example, avoid wholemeal breads if children are used to white bread and avoid wholemeal pastry if they usually have pastry made with white flour. The Jus Rol frozen pastry is ideal as it comes as shortcrust, puff or filo - even ready to use vol-au-vents. Carob in cakes or sweets is not a good idea if they have never eaten it before as their taste buds are usually anticipating the sweet chocolate taste and are therefore quite disappointed. There are many good quality vegan 'ice creams' on the market which should win over any non-vegan child. There are also good quality jellies available now not only in wholefood shops but also in supermarkets e.g. the Rowntrees Ready To Eat jellies in small plastic tubs, ideal for little hands to cope with (and the tubs can be re-used again to make jellies, trifles, etc for kids to take to school for lunch). Linda McCartney Sausage Rolls will fool anyone into thinking they are eating meat. Add to this sticks of fresh vegetables such as carrots, celery, halves of tomatoes, crisps, peanuts and fruit juices or fizzy drinks. There are plenty of recipes around for good vegan sponge cakes (chocolate is always popular) to round off the meal. If they haven't got any room left for the cake, cut it up into slices and put a couple of portions in their party bag to take home.
Preparing for School

Packed lunches are invariably easier than taking pot luck with school meals. If the school has a good record of providing wholefood vegetarian options, there may be no problem requesting a vegan meal. The Vegan Society's provide a catering pack which can be passed on to the canteen or catering company dealing with meals for your child's school.

Whilst adults find it difficult to put up with a constant barrage of criticism from relatives and friends, children find it much harder, being more sensitive to criticism and peer pressure. They really just want to 'fit in' with the rest of the kids in the class and not have to constantly defend their food and lifestyle. Other than at lunchtime, veganism is probably not going to be much of an issue at primary school. However, it is wise to prepare children with sound information on veganism so they are able to stand firm against any comments coming their way. Secondary school is likely to be more of a problem depending on the level of awareness in the school. Animal rights as an issue is more and more popular with kids in their teens and vegetarianism (if not veganism) is becoming commonplace. Some schools are making a tremendous effort to provide healthier food in the canteen so things are improving all the time. The subject of veganism is even on the the GCSE syllabus now!

There is plently of literature around from different animal rights organisations that will provide your child with good defence material against peers who question their lifestyle. Animal Aid, for example, has a good Youth Group and plenty of literature and posters aimed at schoolchildren.

Providing vegan parents offer as much support, information and advice on this subject as they would on any other about which they hold firm convictions then this will give kids a good grounding for the future. Children deserve to have information presented to them in a manner which takes into account of their age, sensitivity and level of understanding . Honest answers and straight talking will pay rich dividends at a later date. Children who are not fed an assortment of half-truths or deliberate misinformation will have little difficulty in making the connection between live animals and the food on their plate.
Vaccinations

The subject of whether or not to vaccinate children is an oft debated topic pf particular concern vegans and vegetarians who want to know more about the content of the vaccines, whether animal testing has been involved in their production and their long-term safety. Dr Gill Langley discusses the issues and their relevance to vegans in the Vegan Society's information sheet on Vaccinations.
Milk Tokens

In the UK families on low incomes are offered milk tokens. However, the Department of Health stipulates that these may be exchanged only for cow's milk. It may be possible to obtain Farley's Soya Formula on prescription if the GP considers there to be a medical reason for it to be supplied to the infant. The Vegan Society periodically lobbies the DoH to outline its concerns over this issue. To increase pressure on the Department of Health to change its policy on milk tokens, please write to it requesting that vegan parents be permitted to exchange the tokens for a vegan alternative to cow's milk or considers making a cash allowance available in lieu of tokens. The Department of Health, Richmond House, 79 Whitehall, London SW1A 2NS.
Further Details
Books

The Vegetarian Baby by Sharon Yntema. Published by Thorsons.

Vegetarian Children by Sharon Yntema. Published by Thorsons.

Healthy Vegan Infants/Children. Published by Plamil Foods Ltd, Plamil House, Bowles Well Gardens, Folkestone, Kent. 50p plus A5 SAE.

Living Without Cruelty by Mark Gold. Published by Green Print.

Vegan Nutrition by Gill Langley. Published by The Vegan Society.*

Pregnancy, Children & the Vegan Diet by M. Klaper. Published by Gentle World.*

Simply Vegan by Debra Wasserman & Reed Mangels. Published by VRG (US)*

Vegan Nutrition: Pure & Simple by M. Klaper. Published by Gentle World*

Why Vegan by Kath Clements *

Weaning Your Baby with Wholefoods. Published by Heretic.

Animal Free Shopper. Published by the Vegan Society. (small section on Baby & Infant Care products)*

All books marked with an * are available from The Vegan Society.

Jasmijn
Berichten: 3101
Lid geworden op: vr feb 24, 2006 13:32
Leefwijze: veganist
Locatie: Groningen

Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door Jasmijn » ma sep 28, 2009 19:19

Wow Wen, jij hebt je goed ingelezen!

Gebruikersavatar
Anna
Berichten: 494
Lid geworden op: vr feb 03, 2006 9:15

Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door Anna » ma sep 28, 2009 19:43

Amethystina schreef:Hoi!
Ik ben sinds 4 weekjes zwanger van onze eerste spruit. Graag zou ik met andere mama's (in spe) ervaringen en tips uitwisselen, via pb of via het forum, vooral ook over gezondheid en wat wel en niet te eten.
Ik ben benieuwd! :D
hoi Amethystina,
allereerst, gefeliciteerd!
ik post hier eigenlijk nooit meer, maar lees nog wel regelmatig mee. ik heb zelf 2 kinderen en ben nu zwanger van de derde. ik ben na de eerste vegetarisch en na de tweede veganistisch gaan eten/leven. als je nog tips/ervaringen wilt uitwisselen mag je mij gerust pb-en. ik zie dat je al veel leesvoer hebt gekregen :D
in ieder geval veel succes en plezier met je zwangerschap gewenst!
groetjes Anna

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Wen
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Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door Wen » ma sep 28, 2009 20:38

Oh ja sorry, nog vergeten: nen dikke proficiat :)

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Vegantastic
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Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door Vegantastic » ma sep 28, 2009 22:03

Gefeliciteerd!

Amethystina
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Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door Amethystina » di sep 29, 2009 7:06

Dank jullie wel!!! Wen, bedankt voor je leesvoer, daar kan ik wel eventjes mee voort ;-)
En Anna, ik stuur je straks even een pb-tje :-)

Amethystina
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Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door Amethystina » di sep 29, 2009 13:23

Ik dacht er trouwens over om een keertje langs een diëtist te gaan, leek me wel handig en interessant. Maar dan wel bij eentje die open staat voor veganisme (en niet, zoals zoveel, niet eens voor vegetarisme :? )
Ik heb gezien dat er niet zo ver van mij vandaan een antroposofische dietist zit.
Zou die een beetje open minded zijn denken jullie?

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Marla
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Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door Marla » di sep 29, 2009 13:52

Hmm, volgens mij zijn zij meestal wel voorstander van het gebruik van zuivel, maar je kan het natuurlijk altijd proberen.

Had je dit topic al gezien trouwens?

Jasmijn
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Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door Jasmijn » di sep 29, 2009 14:10

Veel succes en plezier met de zwangerschap, gefeliciteerd!
Lijkt me hartstikke mooi om zwanger te zijn als je er zo aan toe bent :D .

lena
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Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door lena » di sep 29, 2009 15:50

De antroposofische artsen die ik ken waren heel erg voor zuivel. Vegetarisch kon wel, maar veganistisch niet, onder andere omdat je dan toch niet onder supplementen uit komt, en daar houden antroposofen niet van. Diergebruik wordt in de antroposofie over het algemeen wel gestimuleerd, er wordt ook veel gebruik gemaakt van wol, leer (voor schoentjes) en bijenwas bijvoorbeeld. Maar de dietist bij jou in de buurt kan natuurlijk heel anders zijn, je kunt altijd even bellen en vragen.

Jasmijn
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Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door Jasmijn » di sep 29, 2009 16:54

lena schreef:Diergebruik wordt in de antroposofie over het algemeen wel gestimuleerd, er wordt ook veel gebruik gemaakt van wol, leer (voor schoentjes) en bijenwas bijvoorbeeld.
En vilt...kaboutertjes van, herfsttafeltjes van "

Maar ik ben het met Lena eens; de ene antroposofische arts/dietist is de andere niet en over het algemeen zijn antroposofen heel aardig en begripvol. Als ik jou was zou ik ook gewoon even contact opnemen om te vragen.

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Wen
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Re: Nog andere zwangeren hier?

Bericht door Wen » di sep 29, 2009 19:34


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